Parc (Firma)

Industrie F & E
Gegründet 1970; Vor 52 Jahren
Gründer Jacob E. Goldman[1]
Hauptquartier ,
Elternteil Xerox
PARC entrance

Parc (Palo Alto Research Center; früher Xerox Parc) ist ein Forschung und Entwicklung Firma in Palo Alto, Kalifornien.[2][3][4] Founded in 1969 by Jacob E. "Jack" Goldman, chief scientist of Xerox Corporation, the company was originally a division of Xerox, tasked with creating computer technology-related products and hardware systems.[1][5]

Xerox PARC has been at the heart of numerous revolutionary computer developments, including Laserdruck, Ethernet, das moderne persönlicher Computer, grafische Benutzeroberfläche (GUI) und desktop paradigm, Objekt orientierte Programmierung, Allgegenwärtiges Computer, elektronisches Papier, Amorphes Silizium (a-Si) applications, the Computermaus, und Sehr große Integration (VLSI) for Halbleiter.[6][5]

Unlike Xerox's existing research laboratory in Rochester, New York, which focused on refining and expanding the company's copier business, Goldman's “Advanced Scientific & Systems Laboratory” aimed to pioneer new technologies in advanced physics, materials science, and computer science applications.

In 2002, Xerox spun off Palo Alto Research Center Incorporated as a wholly owned subsidiary.[7]


Xerox PARC in 1977

In 1969, Goldman talked with George Pake, a Physiker spezialisiert auf Kernspinresonanz und Propst von Washington University in St. Louis, about starting a second research center for Xerox.

On July 1, 1970, the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center opened.[8] Its 3,000-mile distance from Xerox headquarters in Rochester, New York, afforded scientists at the new lab great freedom to undertake their work, but it also increased the difficulty of persuading management of the promise of some of their greatest achievements.

In its early years, PARC's West Coast location helped it hire many employees of the nearby Sri Augmentation Research Center (ARC) as that facility's funding began falling, from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) und die US-Luftwaffe. By leasing land at Stanford Research Park, it encouraged Universität in Stanford graduate students to be involved in PARC research projects and PARC scientists to collaborate with academic seminars and projects.

Much of PARC's early success in the computer field was under the leadership of its Computer Science Laboratory manager Bob Taylor, who guided the lab as associate manager from 1970 to 1977 and as manager from 1977 to 1983.

Work at PARC since the early 1980s includes advances in Allgegenwärtiges Computer, Aspekt-orientiertes Programmieren, und IPv6.

After three decades as a division of Xerox, PARC was transformed in 2002[7] into an independent, wholly owned subsidiary company dedicated to developing and maturing advances in science and business concepts.


PARC's developments in information technology served for a long time as standards for much of the computing industry. Many advances were not equalled or surpassed for two decades, enormous timespans in the fast-paced high-tech world. Xerox PARC has been the inventor and incubator of many elements of modern computing:

The Alto

Xerox Alto

Most of these developments were included in the Alto, which added the now familiar Stanford Research Institute (SRI) developed Maus,[10] unifying into a single model most aspects of now-standard personal computer use. The integration of Ethernet[6] prompted the development of the Parc Universal Paket architecture, much like today's Internet.


Xerox has been heavily criticized (particularly by business historians) for failing to properly commercialize and profitably exploit PARC's innovations.[11] A favorite example is the grafische Benutzeroberfläche (GUI), initially developed at PARC for the Alto and then sold as the Xerox Star by the Xerox Systems Development Department. It heavily influenced future system design, but is deemed a failure because it only sold about 25,000 units. A small group from PARC led by David Liddle und Charles Irby gebildet Metapher Computersysteme. They extended the Star desktop concept into an animated graphic and communicating office-automation model and sold the company to IBM.

Microsoft Gründer Bill Gates has said that the Xerox graphical interface influenced both Microsoft and Apple. Steve Jobs of Apple said that “Xerox could have owned the entire computer industry, could have been the IBM of the nineties, could have been the Microsoft of the nineties."[12][13]

While there is some truth that Xerox management failed to see the potential of many of PARC's inventions, this was mostly a problem with its computing research, a relatively small part of PARC's operations. A number of GUI engineers left to join Apple Computer. Technologies pioneered by its materials scientists wie zum Beispiel Flüssigkristallanzeige (LCD), optische Scheibe innovations, and laser printing were actively and successfully introduced by Xerox to the business and consumer markets.[14]

Distinguished researchers

Among PARC's distinguished researchers were three Turing Award Gewinner: Butler W. Lampson (1992), Alan Kay (2003) und Charles P. Thacker (2009). Das Verband für Rechenmaschinen (ACM) Software System Award recognized the Alto system in 1984, Smalltalk 1987,, Interisp in 1992, and the Remote -Verfahrensanruf in 1994. Lampson, Kay, Bob Taylor, and Charles P. Thacker received the Nationale Akademie des Ingenieurwesens's prestigeträchtige Charles Stark Draper -Preis in 2004 for their work on the Alto.

Siehe auch


  1. ^ a b John Markoff (December 21, 2011). "Jacob Goldman, Founder of Xerox Lab, Dies at 90". Die New York Times.
  2. ^ "Kontakt Archiviert 2014-08-23 at the Wayback -Maschine." PARC. Retrieved on November 11, 2010. "PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) 3333 Coyote Hill Road Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA"
  3. ^ "driving & public transportation directions Archiviert 2014-08-29 bei der Wayback -Maschine." PARC. Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
  4. ^ "Karte Archiviert 2014-08-08 bei der Wayback -Maschine." PARC. Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
  5. ^ a b Viki, Tendayi. "Wie Xerox Parc 47 wird, lernte die Lektion, dass Geschäftsmodelle wichtig sind.". Forbes. Abgerufen 2019-08-13.
  6. ^ a b "Xerox Parc". Parc, Palo Alto Research Center ... und Ethernet
  7. ^ a b "Xerox Parc wird 40: Marking vier Jahrzehnte technischer Innovationen". Computerwelt. 20. September 2010. Von Xerox im Januar 2002 ausgearbeitet
  8. ^ a b c d Viki, Tendayi. "Wie Xerox Parc 47 wird, lernte die Lektion, dass Geschäftsmodelle wichtig sind.". Forbes. Abgerufen 2019-10-04.
  9. ^ "Der Xerox Alto stolziert seine Sachen an seinem 40. Geburtstag". (IEEE -Spektrum). 15. November 2017.
  10. ^ Xerox Parc war die erste Forschungsgruppe, die die von der Maus erfundene Maus umfassend übernahm Douglas Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center Bei der Stanford Research Institute (jetzt SRI International) in Menlo Park, Kalifornien.
  11. ^ Douglas K. Smith; Robert C. Alexander (1988). Fumbling in the Future: Wie Xerox erfunden und dann ignorierte, der erste PC. William Morrow & Co. ISBN 978-0688069599.
  12. ^ Robson, David (9. Juni 2020). "Wie man die" Kompetenzfalle "vermeidet". BBC.
  13. ^ Fried, INA (27. Februar 2017). "Bill Gates schreibt Xerox, nicht Apple, für Windows zu". Axios.
  14. ^ "Meilensteine, Parc, eine Xerox -Firma". Archiviert von das Original Am 2013-07-02. Abgerufen 2010-06-14.

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